In practice, many NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems can be formulated as partitioning problems.In such a formulation, each component in thepartition is assigned with a numerical objectivevalue and the objective function is defined as afunction on the numerical values assigned. Theoptimization problem is to minimize or maximize the objective function on all possible partitionsthat satisfy certain constraints. A feasiblepartition (i.e., a partition that satisfy all theconstraints) with the optimal objective value iscalled an optimal partition. A near-optimal partitionis a partition with an objective value close to theoptimal value. In a partitioning problem, byexploiting the properties of the underlying domain, one may be able to construct efficientheuristic algorithms to produce near-optimalpartitions. We present algorithms for applications inHigher Dimensional Domain Decomposition, IntensityModulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) includingIntensity Modulated Arc Therapy (IMAT)
The aim of this book was to develop an effective system to improve the sound transmission loss of lightweight partition walls. Effective in this context means that the system would be lightweight, economical,and readily installed with current site practice. The accepted wisdom in the area of sound reduction is to drape the entire area of the partition with a sound absorbing membrane material and the work of this book proceeded on this premise. However during the course of the experiments it was found that the assembly detail at the stud had a much more significant effect than the membrane material on sound reduction. It transpired that the main effect of the membrane material was to provide damping under the screws at the stud and if the material was compressed too much the damping was compromised. The book reports on the introduction of a new sacrificial layer which, when incorporated into the stud assembly allows the full damping effect of the membrane material to manifest itself.The book therefore proposes a strip or wad consisting of layers of membrane material and sacrificial layer to be mounted on the stud prior to the plasterboard.
Theological study of the Pentecostal church has been a relatively neglected field, even more so in the Australian context. This book constructs a Pentecostal ecclesiology by using the ecclesiological method of Nicholas M. Healy to produce a practical-prophetic ecclesiology. The doctrinal basis for the practices examined is the doctrines of the priesthood of believers, the prophethood of believers, and Pentecostal churches being Spirit-led communities. The literature examined shows a variety of understandings of the priesthood and prophethood of believers and eschatology is used to partition the practices which are used to construct the ecclesiology. Pentecostal definitions of the priesthood of believers and the prophethood of believers and what is church are proposed, then the global and local contexts of two Australian Pentecostal churches are explicated. From this flows a demonstration of Healy's methodology by the examination of the practice of worship from source material produced by Hillsong Church and a briefer examination of the exercise of the spiritual gift of prophecy within Christian City Church (now C3) churches.
Existing research indicates that Indigenous people remain under-represented in Australian universities. Traditional approaches to investigating these issues are not adequate because they fail to consider the interactional relationships between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous people. Drawing on ethnomethodology's conversation analysis and membership categorisation analysis, this book examines the linguistic, categorial and conversational resources that Indigenous and Non-Indigenous persons use in their everyday university interactions. Numerous examples show how Indigenous and Non-Indigenous people partition and align the population. The author finds that race has a significant impact on Indigenous peoples' experience of inclusion of exclusion in university life, which is not the case for Non- Indigenous people. This (and other) findings make important contributions to current policy, theory, practice and research across a range of relevant areas.
The creation of a Landlocked of Archipelago had a long historical background. It came into existence in 1947. This controversial demarcation was as a result of the Partition of Bengal. The enclaves were created at that time. Enclave dwellers were living inside a territory but they were familiar as the people of absolutely nowhere. Excluded from the state administration along with no law and judicial procedure, the practice of might is right and informal governance of those enclaves was as a whole. The political game of two neighbor countries has come to an end on 1st August 2015. Now the state less citizens is the citizen of the state. It is the government responsibility to ensure the all rights through formal mechanisms. Depending on the situation, informal governance could be substitute or competent with formal governance. This research has used fourfold typology of Helmke and Levitsky to know the scenario and transformation process of informal governance to formal governance in the former enclaves of Bangladeh. Gabdulhakov five steps model has used to identify the root causes of worst situations in the former enclaves.
This thesis considers the k-BALANCED PARTITIONING problem, which is defined as follows. Find the minimum number of edges in a graph that, when cut, partition the vertices into k (almost) equally sized sets. Amongst others, the problem derives its importance from the need to distribute data within a parallel-computing architecture. In this setting we are particularly interested in 2D finite element model (FEM) simulations. We therefore model the input as a regular quadrilateral tiling of the plane. More precisely, we focus on solid grid graphs. These are finite connected subgraphs of the infinite 2D grid without holes. However we also consider other graph classes. In particular, trees often give surprising conclusions to the problem on grid graphs.We provide several efficient algorithms computing provably good solutions. For the case when k=2 (the BISECTION problem) these include methods to compute optimal as well as approximate solutions. When k can take arbitrary values we provide two kinds of approximation algorithms. First we give a method that is fast but, for practical applications, has unsatisfactory approximation ratios. Additionally we provide an algorithm computing near-optimal solutions, which however is too slow to be used in practice. We also prove that the gained tradeoff between fast runtime and good approximation factors is unavoidable. For this we provide corresponding hardness results.